Servers: Provides shared recourses to network

Proxy Server: A firewall component that manages Internet traffic to and from LAN. A proxy server gives control to the owner, improves popular web pages and discards requests owner doesn't find appropriate. discards unauthorized access to files


Alternate Installs

winnt.exe & winnt32.exe:  unattended installations, network installations

Image:  most popular "ghost"

RIS: remote installation


File setting transfer wizard: go to Start... Accessories...System tools...


 Go to command Prompt: Go to Run type CMD


MSI: Microsoft System Installer

MMC: Microsoft Management Consol

PCI: Peripheral Control Interface

AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port

TCP.IP: Transfer control Protocol/ Internet Protocol

IIS: Internet Information Services    Add via Add/Remove Programs Window Components


FAT: File Allocation table

NTFS: New Technology File System

MSI: Microsoft system installer

UPS: Uninterrupted Power Supply


Not supported in Home Edition:

No Domains, Doesn't support NTFS, Dynamic disks, Encryption, only 1 prospector, 

IIS, Remote Installation service (RIS)



As with other Windows Operating Systems, when you turn on your PC, it goes through an elaborate boot up process. It begins when the computer performs the POST (power-on self test), followed by the POST for each adapter card that has a BIOS, for example, your video card. The BIOS then reads the MBR (Master Boot Record) which is in the first sector of the first hard disk and transfers control to the code in the MBR which is created by the XP Setup. This is where Windows takes over the startup process.

What comes next? Here's what happens:

  1. The MBR reads the boot sector which is the first sector of the active partition.This sector contains the code that starts Ntldr which is the boot strap loader for Windows XP. The first role of Ntldr is to allow full memory addressing, start the file system, read boot.ini and put up the boot menu. IMPORTANT: Ntldr must be located in root folder of the active partition along with, boot.ini, bootsect.dos (for dual booting) and Ntbootdd.sys (needed with some SCSI adapters).
  2. Selecting XP from the boot menu causes Ntldr to run to get information about installed hardware. Ntldr then uses the ARC path specified in the boot.ini to find the boot partition. The one where Windows XP is installed. It might look like this: Ntldr, then, loads the two files that make up the core of XP: Ntoskrnl.exe and Hal.dll. These files must be located in the %SystemRoot%System32 folder.
  3. Ntldr reads the registry files, selects a hardware profile, control set and loads device drivers, in that order.
  4. Then, Ntoskrnl.exe takes over and starts Winlogon.exe which starts Lsass.exe (Local Security Administration), this is the program that displays the Welcome screen (If Professional Edition-the Windows Log On dialog box), and allows the user to log on with his/her user name and password.

Files used

NTLDER   System partition root (C:\)   Preboot and boot

BOOT.INI   System partition root    Boot

BOOTSECT.DOS    System partition root     Boot (optional)

NTDETECT.COM   system partition root    boot

NTBOOTDD.SYS        system partition root    boot (optional)

NTOSKRNL.EXE     %systemroot%\ system32    Kernel load

HAL.DLL    %systemroot%\ system32    Kernel load

SYSTEM        %systemroot%\ system32    Kernel initialization

Device Drivers         %systemroot%\ system32\drivers    Kernel initialization


POST: Power on self test

MBR: Master Boot Record

NTLDER: New Technology Loader

HAL:  Hardware Abstraction Layer


Fix problems

System Restore

Last know Good

Safe Mode

Recover Mode


System Properties

   Advanced tab    Performance options

Visual effects

User profiles

Local...on the PC

Roaming....Stored on a network Drive

Manditory....user can't change

Default User Profile....a template per user

All User Profile...All users have same profile

Startup & recovery   F8 at boot

Error reporting and Environmental Variables



Local User  and Domain User

Local User  for the computer you are sitting at...Local Security Database

Domain User allow you to log on to the domain and access resources anywhere on the network Active Director Database (the directory)

Built-in Local User Acct...7-4

Admin.,   Guest,    Initial User,    Help Assistant,     Support xxxxxxx

Runas  Secondary Logon service must be enabled for the runas command to work.

Naming convention  is an organization's established standard for identifying users

Password guidelines..7-10

Modifying, Creating and Deleting User Accts...7-13

User Account Tool go to control panel, click User Accounts 7-13

Computer Management Snap-in...7-17

To add a new user click on Local Users and Groups  right click on Users then New User...7-18

To Delete a User  Click Users and right click the User you want to delete

Password Reset Disk..7-20

Configuring Properties for User Accts. 7-28

Computer Management Right click on a user then Properties there are (3) tabs

General,   Member of,   Profile

Implementing groups   7-36

Group is a collection of users, groups simplify administration.

Permissions Control what  users can do with a resource such as a folder, a file or a printer.

Rights Allow users to perform system tasks

Guidelines for using Local Groups  7-37

How to Create a Local Group  In Computer Management right click on Groups click New Group

How to add a member to a Group Right click on the group you want to add properties then add

NTFS Permissions 8-2

Folder Permissions

Read, Write, List Folder Content, Read and Execute, Modify, Full Control

File Permissions  8-3

Read, Write, Read and Execute, Modify, Full Control

ACL   Access Control List  8-3

ACE Access Control Entry

 A users Effective Permissions for a resource are the sum of the NTFS permissions that you assign to the individual user account and to all the groups to which the user belongs.

How File Permissions over ride Folder Permissions 8-4

Bypass Traverse Checking security Permission

How Deny Permissions Override Allow Permssions

Denying a permission overrides all instances in which that permission is allowed. Even if a user has permission to access a file or folder as a member of a group, denying permissions to a user blocks any other permissions the user might have.

How NTFS Permissions Inheritance is Controlled  8-5

By default, permissions that you assign to the Parent folder are inherited by and propagated to the sub folders and files contained in the parent folder

The folder for which you prevent permissions inheritance become the new parent folder.